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KiOfine® Drop

KiOfine® Drop

The context


Ten years ago, ICV Group, in partnership with Kitozyme, developed KiOfine®-B, a new oenological solution to remove Brettanomyces-like germs from wines. KiOfine®-B is a natural product made from 100% fungal chitosan and has been used for its curative effects.
In recent years, studies have been undertaken by the ICV to measure the possible preventive effect of fungal chitosan on the development of Brettanomyces.

Over a period of 2 years, the ICV Group carried out a program to validate whether KiOfine® - B could provide additional security during barrel ageing.


Modalities: supply of KiOfine®-B (in the form of pebbles) during the filling of uncontaminated red wine on new barrels.


A first teaching on good breeding practice


This program first demonstrated the importance of regular check-out of the wetting tanks (these wines used to fill-up the barrels that "consume" wine). It’s more than probably an underestimated source of contamination. The new barrels require frequent filling-up which induces a high risk of development of Brettanomyces; not only because O2 is dissolved during this operation (so the free SO2 and therefore the molecular drop), but also because the tank used for this filling-up can evolve on its own and bring contamination when it was apparently unharmed in the first control.




The KiOfine®-B Preventive Application: What Results?


The following graph shows the results at the end of the production process on 27 different raw materials or batches tested in new barrels (under field condition).
The duration of ageing is everywhere at least 5 months and goes up to 11 months on some trials.


Result 1: Development of Brettanomyces in more than 40% of the trials.
Second result: a greatly reduced presence on the treated barrels.
30% of untreated tests were contaminated, compared to only 11% for treated tests. The use of KiOfine®-B as a preventive medicine reduces the risk by a factor of about 3.
In addition, in the 11% of cases where treated barrels also had measurable populations of Brettanomyces, these were 100-fold lower than untreated barrels at the time they were detected (around the 6th month), with these differences decreasing over time.


3rd result : there was never any presence of Brettanomyces on the treated barrels without them being present on the untreated barrels.
Result 4: No difference linking to stirring ("bâtonnage", whether on treated barrels or controls.
Nevertheless, stirring can be a source of cross-contamination (as is taking samples).


Conclusion: preventive treatment on new barrels leads to a decrease in the risk frequency and populations numbers.


Tips for use:

  • An easy and convenient implementation: put the rollers in the barrel before filling. The addition of wine will facilitate their crumbling and especially their dispersion in the whole volume of wine.
  • The monitoring of the filling-up tank must be considered as part of the "Good Practices": one week to 10 days before the filling-up of barrels control and remove the tank if the IGA control indicates contamination.
  • The maximum legal dose in EU is 2 pebbles per hL and our recommended dosage is of 2 pebbles per standard Bordeaux or Burgundian barrel.


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